Geophysical research packages
GTK possesses a broad selection of geophysical research equipment for ground-based, borehole and laboratory studies. The following list highlights some of the most important instrumentation:
Topographic measuring equipment for ore exploration, bedrock and soil studies and environmental monitoring
- ABEM tool for ground measurement of resistivity and IP used in ore and environmental studies.
- TerraTEM time-domain EM down-hole probe device for measuring variations in electromagnetic field. Reliable down to 300 m.
- Magnetometers: GSM-8, Scintrex EnviMag, Envimag Gradiometer, Scintrex MP-2, Geometrix G880
- Gravimeters: Worden Master, Sodin 200T, Scintrex Autograv CG-3M, CG-3, CG-5
- Slingram devices for measuring electrical conductivity mapping, including GTK 3.6 kHz and 14 kHz models, Apex Maxmin II
- Terrain resistivity/conductivity: Geonics EM31, EM38, Proxan, Outokumpu, EMH-GTK
- VLF & VLF-R: Geonics EM16R, Geonics Tx-27 transmitter, Eda/Omniplus
- Frequency range EM-probe devices for crustal electrical conductivity mapping, including Gefinex 400S, SAMPO, Strobe-M
- Induced polarization and resistance equipment for ore exploration and environmental studies, including Syscal, Scintrex, Diapir
- Ground radar for determining depth and quality of soil cover, including SIR, antennas 20-500 MHz
- Seismic systems for measuring depth of bedrock and fracture zones, including Bison, Geode
- Charge-potential devices: Gefinex 100
Down-hole measurement equipment for ore exploration, bedrock studies and identification of potential sites for storage of spent nuclear fuel:
- Borehole GPR (Malå Geoscience), fluid temperature, fluid resistivity (Wenner), bedrock galvanic resistivity (lateral, short normal, long normal, single point resistivity) and self potential. Probe cable length 1,500 m.
- Borehole probe RRAR-3: magnetic susceptibility, resistance (Wenner) and gamma radiation. Probe cable length 500 m.
- REISKA: novel electromagnetic frequency range borehole method for measurement of bedrock conductivity in ore exploration. Receiver can be inserted in horizontal and upward sloping boreholes. Probe cable length 1,000 m.
- Radio probes FARA & EMRE: Used in tomographic mapping based on electrical conductivity of bedrock between boreholes, frequency range 312.5- 2500 kHz. Probe cable length 600 m
- TERO: borehole logging device for thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bedrock in narrow boreholes. Sensors for 56mm and 76mm boreholes. Probe cable length 700 m. The device has been developed for studies of potential sites for storage of spent nuclear fuel.
Geophysical laboratory equipment
- Equipment for measurement of density
- Measurement of magnetic susceptibility
- Big kappabridge, GTK model, for hand samples and big drill cores
- Small kappabridge, GTK model, for drill cores
- KLY-2 and KLY-3 kappabridges, Agico Inc., for small drill cores
- Equipment for measurement of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) (KLY-3)
- Measurement of remanent magnetization
- Fluxgate magnetometer (sensitivity ca. 3x10-3 A/m for samples of 50 cm3)
- Spinner magnetometer (sensitivity ca. 0.3x10-3 A/m for samples of 10 cm3)
- Demagnetization equipments
- Alternating field (AF) demagnetizers (2G, Schönstedt)
- Thermal demagnetizer (GTK furnace)
- Rock magnetic equipment
- KLY3/CS-3 for magnetic mineral analysis (temperature range -190 - 700ºC)
- Impulse magnetizer (up to 1.5 T) for producing Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM)
- Equipment for producing Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization (ARM)
- Equipment for measurement of inductive resistance (kappabridge)
- Equipment for measurement of galvanic resistance (MAFRIP)
- Equipments for geothermal studies
- Thermal conductivity measurement (+25ºC)
- Specific heat capacity measurement
- Thermal diffusivity measurement (temperature range 0-300ºC)
- Equipments for measurement of porosity
- Equipment for measurement of seismic P-wave velocity
- Gamma-ray spectrometer (U, K, Th, Cs)